What is a Taiga Biome?

What is a Taiga Biome?

Taiga- The world's largest land community of flora and fauna.

Where is the taiga biome located?... It is located just below the tundra biome and it is the largest terrestrial biome extended across Europe, Asia and North America.

It is also known as Boreal forest and coniferous forest as the majority of trees there are conifer trees.

And it comprises of the very small abundance of plants.

Taiga ForestThe taiga Forests are endangered due to logging and mining.

The scientist has a belief that this biome once would be totally covered by glaciers.

It is not a home of several varieties of animals but million of insects and many birds migrate there to feed off these insects per year.

Only two seasons of winter and summer are observable there.

Summers are wet and moist winters cold and freezing.

The Spring and Autumn are short that much that they are in noticeable.

The low vegetation is due to the adaptation of plants.

Plants there is evergreen which means they do not shed their leaves and soil there do not get anything for nutrition.

The soil there is acidic due to decay of thorns and pines.

The new growing season is very short it starts and ends in three months of Summer.

More than 6 months of the year the temperature is below freezing.

The animals there have adopted thick fur, feathers and the ability to change their colour to protect them from their prays.

The majority of softwood timber comes from this region.

Toronto and Moscow are located in taiga biome both come under major cities but still, this biome is inhabited by people.

Plants of the taiga

Taiga plants have adapted themselves to the harsh conditions of weather.

The leaves conversion into thorns to prevent water loss.

Thick bark to prevent cold.

Dense vegetation for warmth, the flexibility of stems and branches to bear heavy snow.

Due to icy and snowy weathers, the plants of taiga have pines needle smooth to keep water inside and are capable of photosynthesis in small sunlight.

Conifers (evergreen) including pines, spruces and firs are the common tree.

The adaptations that these plants adapt to make them limited to particular regions.

As they can't bear heat after adopted themselves to harsh icy climate.

Adaptations include shape, root system, colour, leaf type.

They do not drop leaves in any season. Larch is the exception it shed it's leaves in winter and regrows in summer.

Ghost plants-Mosses, fungi and lichens.

Taiga- Boreal forest or snow forests, the forests of high northern latitudes coniferous forests. The forests from 50°N to 70°N.

The soil there is acidic due to the decay of thorns and pines needle.

Though many plants, shrubs can't sustain these conditions.

A few shrubs do such as blueberry and deciduous trees.

Leave shading trees can be found such as oaks, birches can be found in moist and warm places of the taiga forest.

The climate of the taiga

If we say about a year-round average temperature, the temperature there is the freezing temperature of water i.e. (0°C).

The average temperature of Summer and Winter are respectively 10°C and -3°C.

The temperature once too has dropped to -60°C, which makes these forests no man land.

If we look at exact temperature variations year round it varies from -54°C to 30°C.

The climate changes are putting a lot of changes mainly in high altitudes.

The nuclear weapons and atomic attack and a lot of scientist experiments are increasing lot of global warming in high altitudes

The forest in northern hemisphere clarifies the increase in deciduous trees.

The Canadian Boreal contains more than 300 billion tons of carbon.

Protecting taiga is a need not only as many animals who are in an era of extinction live there or because of indigenous people but to win the battle against fast-changing climate changes.

Land of the small sticks (taiga biome) is a belt of coniferous forests.

It is terrestrial biome and has the lowest annual temperature after tundra and permanent ice caps.

Taiga is the koppen's DFC and dfb category. The letter of climate codes signify -

d - snow climate
f - enough precipitation
c - fewer than 4 months have an average temperature over 10°c
b - warmest month average under 22° C.

Lowest and highest recorded temperature in taiga -

Summers highest temperature recorded - (70°F)
Summers lowest temperature recorded - (30°F)
Winters highest temperature recorded - (30°F)
Winters lowest temperature recorded -(-65°F)

Animals in the taiga

Cooler climate limits certainly animals to survive and adapt the harsh climate changes mainly cooler to cool.

Very few are capable enough to live there annually.

The list of animals that survive there has adopted there by migration and others by hibernation.

Some of the animals have adopted a seasonal change in colours of fur, ermine is the perfect example of this adaptation.

This adaptation protects the animal from its predators as they hide.

There are several mammals living in taiga wolves can be called the king there. Foxes, bears, minks, squirrels, caribou, reindeers, moose.

Animals of taiga, do they include snakes?

If the answer was given logically it would be no.

But very species of reptiles are able to survive that climate only two kinds of snakes European adder and red-sided garter snake cover that much of longer region.

Even they hibernate in winter to protect them from extreme death.

Lynx survive there to having a large size due to wide paws.

The largest cat (Siberian tiger) in the world lives there and is a native species.

Bears too live there happily as their whole body is made as per that climate, his furs and claws and made to walk on icy areas and furs to protect them.

Humans presence is negligible there but yes there are some native communities that still live there.

But the animals are very sensitive to pollution, human presence, and artificial variations.

Taiga is different on its own. 

There are short Summers with heavy rains.

Long winters with heavy snow.

The harsh climate and adapting plants and animals make it unique.

How do humans affect taiga biome

Deforestation, several industrial developments have a negative impact on this biome.

The oil and gas industries, logging, mining, hydraulic developments and much more like these human activities are destroying the beauty and is impacting long going changed there.

Majorly the landscape is fragmenting and ecosystem is affecting.

We have converted them to urban uses.

Most of the softwood timber used in making paper come from these biomes.

Soil pollutants are degrading environment there.

The demographic structure of these biomes is changing.

If entire forests will be logged it is estimated that it is about 39.98% of yearly carbon loss from cutting of trees.

If the trees there be cut as the present rate soon there will be no existence of these snowy frozen forests.

Acid rain there weakens the trees. Indirectly acid rain damages the leaves, limit the limited nutrition, releases toxic slowly killing substances and making them an easy attack to insects, diseases as well as cold weather.

Over the next century, scientists predict that these forests will be reduced by 50- 90%.
It is the largest terrestrial biome but in danger due to logging.

Ozone depleted and getting depleted by a large value in North and South poles means a lot of UV rays. First harming tundra and then the coniferous forests.

17% of this Earth surface is of the beautiful evergreen forest, which now is in huge danger due to human needs.

These forests are known for their climate, low precipitation but the human interferences are increasing global warming which is eco-neutral and harming this wildlife.

The plants and animals which have adopted there can't bear the heat and therefore are weakening.

Long nights in winter and long days in summer and trees prone to wildfires this can be a short description of this undescribable biome.

Of the 300 birds which live there, 30 stays in winter this is a data to describe the harsh winter climate. 

This huge biome is named after the Greek god of the North winds (Boreas).

And the northern lights are common to view in this biome.

What diseases are found in taiga biome

Fire blight, Western gall rust, Cooley spruce gall adelgid, poplar bud gall mite, Armillaria root and many more root diseases are most common.

Fungal pathogens are the most common disease in every biome.

This includes galls and tumors, seed rots, foliage, cankers, decaying in aged old trees and many more diseases that occur and looks as if the tree is rotting.

A lot of diseases are useful there as diseases speed up the rate of maturity of trees.

Decaying results in new ones and more nutrition as more manure.

Similarly and differences between taiga and tundra

The major difference is the presence of trees.

Both have frozen grounds but Taiga has more abundance of trees in drastic to tundra.

Trees face difficulties in stabling their roots in frozen grounds.

In tundra there is about 20% of snow and hence the temperature colder even than Antarctica.

Taiga is located at the pin of the globe below tundra. Tundra being nearer to poles is comparatively colder.

Both are in higher altitudes (Arctic) but taiga is considered as subarctic.

If we look up at the differences-

Taiga extends in the subpolar belt of North America and Eurasia while tundra beyond Arctic and Antarctic.

Taiga has a belt of conifers tundra has mosses and lichens.

Taiga has long winters with ice and snow and short Summers with heavy rainfall, tundra with very long several summers but warm short Summers.

Taiga a land of fur all animals have furs there, tundras very fewer animals like polar bears, reindeers and walruses.

If we know exactly from where these two biomes separate.

It is that tundra is where the subsoil is permafrost, and where the light comes low and where there is the short growing season.

Rhythm Dhami

A deep-rooted person who has made an investigation of regular history since childhood or so - longer than I can recollect. An interest in wildlife has developed into wonder with all of nature, and an unquenchable interest to take in more..

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